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Hattusa, The Capital of Hittites in Bogazkoy, Corum

HATTUSA (BOGAZKOY)

The Royal Capital of Hittites...

Hattusas (or Hattusa), the capital of the Hittite state, is located in the village of Bogazkoy, 208 km from Ankara in the county of Bogazkale in Corum.

You will find detailed information about Hattusas on the following pages:

  • General Information
  • Bogazkoy (Hattusa), The Capital of the Hittite Empire
  • Buyukkale, Acropolis of Hattusa
  • The Temples of Weather God Hatti and Sun Goddess Arinna
  • Yazilikaya, the National Sanctuary of the Hittite Empire
  • The Relief of Yazilikaya

The ruins of Hattusa, the capital of the Hittite state, are situated overlying a terrace and a huge crag rising above the present-day village known either as Bogazkoy or Bogazkale. Hattusa is derived from Hattus, the original name given to it by the Hattic people. On capturing the city, the Hittites (P. 7 ff.) continued to use the name, except that by adding the suffix "an" or sometimes "as", they turned it into the Hittite adaptation "Hattusa" or "Hattusas". The oldest Hittite document discovered at Bogazkoy reveals that Hattusa was devastated at the beginning of the 18th century BC by Anitta of Kussara (P. 7), who is understood to have been the greatest Hittite king during the time of the city-states. The document also states that he put a curse on the city in the following words: "Whoever shall be king after me, if he re-settles Hattusa, he shall be struck by the Storm God". However, the fact remains that the Hittites re-inhabited Hattus shortly after Anitta's death, as is proved by a letter of the Hammurabi period, discovered at Mari, in Syria, during the excavations of the French archaeologist, André Parrot, in which Hattus is referred to by its Hittite name, "Hattusa". This evidence reveals that the city had become Hittite by 1700 BC at the latest.

North of the Great Temple (plan of Bogazkoy, No. 1), the German expedition, now carrying out excavations at Hattusa, recently unearthed the remains of buildings and small works of art belonging to the Karum Hattus settlement, which occurred in the final phase of the Hattic era of the city, One of the Assyrian colonies called "Karum" in ancient written sources existed at Hattusa in this phase covering the 19th and 18th centuries BC (see p. 7).

Hattusa AnimationThroughout Hittite history, both during the Old Kingdom period (1750-1450) and that of the Empire (1450 - 1180), Hattusa was the capital city. The first city wall around Hattusa is thought to have been built by King Hantili I about the beginning of the 16th century, In spite of this fortification, the Kaska people destroyed and sacked the city about a century later in the reign of Tudhaliya III, Nevertheless, it is understood that, within a short time, the city and its defenses were rebuilt. The old city occupies the area between the Great Temple and the Great Citadel and was the scene of settlement in the Hattic age (pp., 5, 7), the City State period (2000 - 1750), and the time of the Old Kingdom (1750 - 1450). On the other hand, the upper city, rising up south of the sally ports (see Plan of Bogazkoy), came into being in the Empire Period ( 1450 - 1180 BC). The city wall, which is very well-preserved in - some places, stretches for a total of 6 km. (see the plan of Bogazkoy). The Hittite state came to an end with the devastation of Hattusa by Thracian tribes in 1180 BC (p- 12). The excavation of Hattusa first began in 1906, under the direction of Hugo Winckler and Theodor Makridi. These two archaeologists were joined in the following year by Otto Puchstein, and their work continued until 1912. A great sensation was caused by the discovery during these excavations of tablets bearing cuneiform writing in the Great Temple. The tablets could be read since cuneiform writing was already known, but the deciphering of the Hittite language took a long time. After some unsuccessful attempts by various scholars, the riddle of the Hittite tongue was finally solved by the Czech linguist, F. Hrozny, in 191.S. The excavations were recommenced after the First World War in 1931 with Kurt Bittel in charge and, disregarding the interruption caused by the Second World War, have continued successfully up to the present day.

Those important places worth visiting are listed here in the order in which they should be seen: Yazilikaya (see plan of temple at Yazilikaya and following), the Great Temple (plan of temples, temple of Hatti), the Great Citadel (see plan of Buyukkale), the King's Gate (plan of Bogazkoy, No. 6), the Sphinx Gate (plan of Bogazkoy, No. 11), the Tunnel and the city wall in the vicinity of the Sphinx Gate (see picture of wall), temples 2-4 north of the Sphinx Gate, the Lion Gate (plan of Bogazkoy, No. 12), and the local museum. Those who intend spending just one day at Hattusa are advised to visit Yazilikaya before proceeding to the city because the reliefs at Yazilikaya only receive direct sunlight between 11 a.m., and 1 p. m.; after this time they are not distinctly visible.

Plan of Bogazkoy (Hattusa)

  • The settlement dating from the Karum Hattus period (19th-18th centuries BC)
  • The Temple of the Weather God of Hatti and the Sun Goddess of Arinno.
  • Buyukkale (the Great Citadel), the Acropolis of Hattusa (see the plan of Buyukkale)
  • The Southern Citadel, probably one of the most important fortresses of the 13th century BC, not yet excavated.

Nisantepe (Target Hill), with remains of a once imposing Hittite castle dating from the 13th century BC. On the west side of the modern road, you can see an 8.50 m long hieroglyphic inscription carved in the rock. This is badly weathered, but, starting in the top right-hand corner, reference is made to "the Great King Suppituliuma, son of the Great King Tudhaliya and grandson of the Great King Hattusili". Since the two Hittite kings called Suppiluliuma to happen to have had the same genealogy, we are not in a position to determine which is meant here.

King's Gate (beginning of the 14th century BC). The high relief originally adorning the west face of the north door jamb of the entrance overlooking the interior of the city is now kept in the Ankara Archaeological Museum. On the site, the original work is now replaced by a concrete cost. The attractive outer face of the King's Gate is relatively well-preserved. The door jambs were made up largely of tall andesite monoliths forming the pointed arch characteristic of Hittite architecture. The city wall is built in Cyclopean masonry with huge, roughly worked stone blocks. The height of the stone wall was about 6 m., and this was overlaid with the sun-dried brick.

Temples dating from the 13th century BC, constructed according to the classic type. of Hittite sanctuary (see the plan of temples, a picture of the temple of Hatti) with a central courtyard and an adyton containing the cult statue.

Yer Kapi, the Sphinx Gate (see the picture below)

Lion Gate (beginning of the 14th century). Constructed like the King's Gate in the form of a pointed arch, the upper part of which is now lost. The outer (western) fronts of the door jambs are each adorned with the head and forequarters of a lion. The animal on the right-hand side, almost intact, is a valuable example of large-scale Hittite sculpture. Like the apotropaic dogs mentioned in Hittite texts, these lions, with their threatening open mouths, were intended to ward off the evil spirits.

Yenice Kale (the New Castle), showing well-preserved Hittite walls, dating from about the 13th century BC.

Sari Kale (the Yellow Castle). Beautifully laid Hittite walls going back to the 13th century BC are also in evidence here. The other walls in the same castle are built of small stones, showing the remains of repair-work carried out in Phrygian times.

Bogazkoy, Yer Kapi i.e. the central Portion of the southern fortifications, with the Sphinx Gate and the big potern (tunnel) (beginning of the 14th century BC). On the east and west, the city was naturally defended by steep slopes which are absent in the center of the south side. Therefore, the Hittite architects constructed a strong bulwark for offensive sorties in this weak section. The 70 m. - long pastern beneath the Sphinx Gate served as a sally port against the enemy. The outer door of this subterranean tunnel, built on the corbel system and employing huge Cyclopean stone blocks, is visible in the center of the picture. When this section of the defense works was in danger, Hittite warriors used this tunnel and descended the two steep stairways on both sides of the gateway in order to attack the enemy from the rear. One of the towers stood on the axis of the potern (tunnel) flanked by sphinxes on the inner side. Three of these sphinxes were found during the excavations. Of the two sphinxes formerly adorning the gateway on the city side, one is now in Berlin, the other in Istanbul. Parts of the third sphinx are still observable in situ.

Buyukkale, Acropolis of Hattusa

1) Buyukkale, Acropolis of Hattusa in the 14th and 13th centuries BC

2) City Gate, built in the early Empire period (beginning of the 14th century)

3) Acropolis Gate (13th century BC)

4) Postern, 34 m. long, built on the corbelling principle, with large Cyclopean stone blocks (beginning of the 14th century)

5) Lower courtyard of the Acropolis

6) The road paved with red marble slabs, stretching from the Acropolis Gate to the South-West Hall (13th century BC)

7) South-West Hall, portico giving access to the Acropolis (13th century BC). The walls beneath the portico date from the early Empire period (beginning of the 14th century BC.).

8) Broad, well-paved road running parallel to the south fortifications on the inside (13th century BC). This has been uncovered for a length of 40 m.

9) Basin, in which votive offerings were found; probably used for ritual purposes (13th century BC.).

10) Middle Courtyard (13th century) surrounded by Buildings M, N, H, B, 10, A, G, 6. The courtyard seems to have played the role of an important square for public and official meetings, and may be regarded as a kind of "State Agora".

A) Archives of the Hittite Empire (13th century). The oldest building in history known to have been built as a library. The main structure is 32 m. long and consists of storerooms on the ground floor. In the four southern rooms, double rows of rectangular limestone pillar bases have been uncovered, but some of these have since disappeared. The pillars and the walls of the rooms shared the support of the first floor. A staircase leading to this was probably installed in the easternmost and narrowest room, in which no pillar bases have been found. Most of the 3,350 clay tablets inscribed with cuneiform writing, which has been preserved either whole or in fragments, were found in the three southern rooms. The tablets stood on end, like modern books, on wooden shelves fitted along the walls. Labels were discovered, also in clay, indicating the contents of the tablets, for instance, "Tablets concerning the deeds of Mursili" or "Thirty-two tablets concerning the Purulli festival of the city of Nerik".

G) This structure, as the remains show, was embellished with limestone and granite orthostats, as well as with mural paintings; therefore it can be considered one of the most important buildings of the Acropolis. (13th century BC).

M) Built in the 13th century BC and preceded by a pillared hall, this building was probably reserved for administrative and official purposes.

N) From its tripartite ground plan, this building can be identified as a monumental gateway of the 13th century. It is comparable with the gate-houses of the temple of the Storm God at Hattusa (plan of temples) and of the temple at Yazilikaya (No. 150), which follow similar schemes. It seems that the "Processional Way" reached the courtyard of the public and official buildings (9) through Gatehouse N. Actually the front of the Citadel Gate is not oriented in some direction as the entrance to the South-West Hall (6) but rather overlooks the road skirting Buildings M, N, H, C, D, E, and F.

B, H) The function of these two buildings dating from the 13th century is unknown.

C) This 13th-century structure may be taken to have been a small shrine, since jugs, plates, beakers, and shells, probably all votive offerings, were found in its central room.

D) The largest structure on the Acropolis so far unearthed. It dates from the 13th century and measures 39 x 48 m. The ground floor was occupied by narrow, rectangular rooms. As Rudolf Naumann suggests, the first floor probably comprised a spacious audience hall with a wide view of the surrounding landscape, including the temple of the Weather God of Hatti.

E) Building E, erected in the 13th century, was very probably a small reception hall. With its almost symmetrical ground plan, this edifice is entirely different from the other buildings at Hattusa and recalls the Bit Hilani type of building first encountered in the plan of Niqmepa's Palace (15th or 14th century) at Tell Acana near Antakya.

F) Building F, constructed in the 13th century in the north-west corner of the citadel, may be regarded as one of the private houses used by the royal family. It's dominating and strategic position above the highway leading to the capital and the magnificent view it commands in three directions must have made it a very suitable residence for the Great Kings.

10) The Palace Gate, built in the 13th century BC displays some triple ground plan, with three rooms along each side, as observed in Building N. It gave access to the upper courtyard in the palace area.

11) The palace buildings proper were situated in the highest part of the Acropolis.

12) The summit has been leveled off over a wide area. Holes in the rock marking the positions of pillars are still visible.

The foundations and remains of walls belonging to structures built of roughly cut small stones situated on the south and south-west slopes of the acropolis go back to the Phrygian period. They date from the 7th and 6th centuries BC The narrow paved road leading up for a stretch of 45 m., winding its way from a well at the foot of the Acropolis as far as the gate to the citadel in the south-west, is also a Phrygian construction dating from the 7th century BC.

The Temples of Hattusa

Temple of Weather God of Hatti and the Sun Goddess of Arinna, 13th. century BC Drawing, based on the plan of P. Neve (MDOG 1969 P. 5 Fig. 1)

The entire complex, including the storerooms surrounding the temple proper, measures 160 x 135 m² in area. This large precinct seems to be encircled by a temenos wall, a part of which has been uncovered in the northern area of the sanctuary. The main entrance to the precinct of the temple lies on the southeast side of the complex; both the doorway built of huge blocks and the two sentry rooms flanking it, are preserved only in parts. During religious festivals, processions passed through this propylon and entered the courtyard surrounding the sanctuary proper. The temple was approached by the monumental gate building which lies to its south (opposite room 65 on the plan). The temple had three additional entrances: one on the south front (between room 64 and 71 a), one on the west (40) and one on the east (17) sides. They were most certainly reserved for the personnel attached to the sanctuary. The narrow rooms surrounding the temple served several purposes and, especially, provided storage space for provisions and for the sanctuary treasure. Many storage jars, resembling those in Cretan and Mycenaean palaces, were found in situ, arranged in two rows (PI. 93 b). Some of these jars bear incised signs indicating their capacity. Others have real impressions with hieroglyphs. In the south-east storerooms and also in rooms 10 to 12 there were found, in 1907, thousands of cuneiform tablets. The extremely narrow form of the storerooms suggests that they supported upper structures. The topography of the area where the temple is erected slopes downwards from south to north. This must have made it necessary to build the surrounding structures in several stories. It seems that the west, south and east sides were two-tiered while the north side had three floors. The stairs which led to the upper stories can still be traced in several rooms (8, 23, 35, 49). The temple itself consists of an entrance on the south front, a series of rectangular rooms surrounding a courtyard, and an annex of twelve ritual chambers on the north-east. The main building is of limestone, while the sacred annex is of granite (picture of the temple).

The gate building (opposite room 65) is an architectural unit in itself, exhibiting a tripartite ground plan, with rooms arranged in threes for the length and breadth of the building. After crossing a monolithic threshold, one entered a small vestibule connecting two rooms, one on the left and one on the right, both of which opened onto the courtyard attached to the encircling storehouses. Then comes the central room of the entrance, flanked by two sentry rooms. Beyond the middle room was the second vestibule, again with a room on either side, which had access to the temple courtyard. In sharp contrast to the markedly symmetrical ground plan of the entrance is the asymmetrical arrangement of the rectangular rooms surrounding the temple courtyard. The rooms in the western aisle differ from those in the eastern aisle, both in shape and in number.

In the northeast corner of the paved courtyard of the temple lie the remains of a "wash house", mentioned in tablets dealing with the ceremonies held in Hittite temples. According to these texts, the king passed through a hilammor (gateway), crossed a hilas (courtyard) and washed his hands before entering the holy of holies, where he conducted the ritual ceremonies. A portico, opening onto the courtyard through three pillars, gave access to the sacred complex of the temple. In the large north-eastern room of this annex stands a stone base which probably supported the statue of the Sun Goddess of Arinno. The large northwestern room which has recently been uncovered must have contained the cult statue of the Weather God of Hatti. As the excavators have rightly pointed out, the equal size and the symmetrical position of the two large rooms reveal that the temple was consecrated to the Weather God of Hatti and the Sun Goddess of Arinno. These deities are, indeed, represented side by side on the north wall of the sanctuary of Yazilikaya, depicting the alliance between the autochthonous Hattion Goddess Wurusemu (Sun Goddess of Arinno), and the Indo-European god of the Hittites (Akurgal, The Birth of Greek Art. 208; Späthethitische Bildkunst, p. 111 - 118).

Each temple room possessed at least one window, set into the exterior wall. These windows almost reached floor level. The room with the stone base projects in such a way that the cult statue would have received sunlight on three sides. The other cult room, which possessed four windows, also received constant sunlight. This love of light suggests that, originally, Hittite religious ceremonies were held in the open air, as was the case in the sanctuary at Yazilikaya.

The temple was constructed of stone only in its lower part, and this is entirely preserved (picture of the temple). The upper part consisted of sun-dried bricks. The rows of round holes seen on the upper surface of the top stone blocks, served to mortise the horizontally placed beams of the wooden frame, strengthening the mud-brick construction. The temple was covered with a flat roof, also composed of mud-brick.

In 1967 and 1968, the German expedition carried out excavations in the southern area of the temple, which yielded important results. They uncovered a street, eight meters wide, paved with large slabs of hard limestone and extending along the southwest front of the temple precinct. They also found several complexes of storerooms and other buildings surrounding a courtyard. Although the complexes show an irrational plan, as in the Cretan palaces, several groups of rooms can be discerned. Group XIV comprises two large rooms and seven rooms in a row, the central one being larger than the six other rooms. This larger room has a monolithic base in its northern section and a pilaster on its south wall, while the six rooms each have two sandstone bases on their middle axes. The excavators believe that this group of rooms served some purpose connected with the religious and administrative activities of the whole sanctuary. In this complex, a half - preserved cuneiform tablet was found bearing one column with a list. According to Professor Bittel, it reads: "Altogether two hundred and eight persons of the É GIS KIN-TI, eighteen of whom are priests, twenty-nine musicians, nineteen scribes of clay tablets, thirty - three scribes of wooden tablets, thirty-five priests of divination, ten singers in Hurrion". This list totals one hundred and forty - four persons.

Temple of the Weather God of Hatti at Bogazkoy (erected in the 14th century BC). As seen in this picture, the lower part of the temple was built of stone blocks, while the upper part was of mud brick. Round holes arranged in rows on the upper surfaces of the stone blocks held the horizontally-placed beams of the wooden frame that strengthened the mud-brick construction.

Yazilikaya

The national sanctuary of the Hittite Empire, today called Yazilikaya, lies 2 km. north-east of Hattusa (Bogazkoy). It was a natural rock shrine, open to the sky. The temple buildings later erected in front of this cult area display remains of three different periods. The accompanying ground plan of Yazilikaya, however, shows only the second phase of the temple. Nevertheless, an examination of the ruins on the spot reveals that at the lowest level was a simple enclosing wall, which separated the rock shrine from the outside world in the first period. In the second phase a temple was built in the canonical type of Hittite sanctuaries (plan of Yazilikaya) developed in Hattusa (plan of temples). A gatehouse (plan of Yazilikaya C) was constructed at this time, similar to the gateway in the Great Temple at Hattusa (plan of temples), which served as a monumental entrance to the sanctuary. During the same phase, a gateway was erected in front of the small gallery (plan of Yazilikaya E). In the third period, the east wing of the main building was altered to accommodate the construction of a more appropriate entrance in front of the small gallery. The temple of the second phase, like the sanctuaries at Hattusa, consisted of rooms surrounding a courtyard with a lustral chamber and a pillared hall giving access to the cult room (plan of Yazilikaya). However, religious ceremonies, which in the temple of Hattusa took place in closed rooms before the statue of the Storm God, were performed in the rock gallery in the open air, below reliefs representing almost the entire Hittite pantheon.

The Plan of Yazilikaya

A) Great Rock-Gallery adorned with reliefs representing 63 Hittite divinities. Probably erected by Hattusiti III (1275 - 1250 BC)

B) Small Rock-Gallery, a mortuary temple reserved for the royal cult. Probably erected by Tudhaliya IV (1250 - 1220 BC)

C) Monumental Gateway leading to the temple (D), erected by Hattusili III

D) The main building of the temple. Probably erected by Hattusiti III (see p. 262)

E) Entrance giving access to the small gallery. Possibly it was erected by Tudholiya IV

A third open-air chamber, connected with the Small Gallery and marked C (not shown on our plan), was excavated last year. The function of this room, which has no reliefs, is not known yet.

The west wall in the large gallery is adorned with reliefs of gods (Nos. 1-39), while those on the east wall are devoted to goddesses (Nos. 43 - 63). Both rows meet at the junction of these walls with the north wall (Nos. 40 - 46 and main scene). The division into male and female deities is not absolute; three goddesses can be discerned among the gods (see relief of gods, Nos. 36 - 38; Ishtar), and one god is noticeable in the row of females (No. 44). The central scene on the north wall depicts the chief divinities.

A place of particular significance has been allotted to the relief of King Tudhaliya IV (1250 - 1220 BC). It is the largest relief in the gallery (plan of Yazilikaya, No. 64; portray of Tudhaliya), being 2.95 meters in height, one-third more than that of the main scene, which is only 2.18 m. high. We may assume that Tudhaliya had his picture carved on the east wall overlooking the main scene because he was personally interested in the completion of the sanctuary. This was originally erected by his father Hattusili III (1275 - 1250 BC), in collaboration with Puduhepa, his ambitious mother. No doubt Puduhepa, who was a powerful queen and afterward reigned with her son Tudhaliya IV, played an important part in the construction of this sanctuary. As Emmanuel Laroche has recognized, this contained, a magnificent representation of the Hittite pantheon, arranged according to the ceremonial order of the Hurrian religion. She was a princess of Kummanni in Kizzuwatna, one of the chief cult centers of the goddess Hepatu, who is depicted in the main scene at the sanctuary (No. 43). Her very name betrays that she was a devotee of Hepatu. The Egyptian version of the treaty between Hattusili III and Rameses II describes the royal seal appearing on the Hittite silver tablet as showing the queen in the embrace of the Sun Goddess of Arinna, the Hittite counterpart of the Hurrian Hepatu. On the whole, however, the divinities were represented in their Anatolian Hittite character. Although the composition of the reliefs follows the ceremonial order observed in the Hurrian religion, the deities themselves are depicted entirely according to Hittite iconographic principles. A beholder from Hattusa would only see representations of Hittite deities before him. The artistic style of the reliefs is also wholly Hittite in character.

The small gallery, which was approached by a separate entrance (plan of Yazilikaya), also contains a number of relief sculptures in a good state of preservation. Kurt Bittel and his colleagues, the excavators of Yazilikaya, are of the opinion that this small gallery was dedicated to the cult of a dead king, either Tudhaliya II or III. Although this clever interpretation is in complete agreement with written sources and with the non-oriental character of the Hittite culture and religion, it would seem that this gallery was nevertheless reserved for the apotheosis of King Tudhaliya IV in his lifetime; for there are two portrayals of the monarch in the small gallery as well as the large relief in the main one. Apart from the magnificent relief sculpture in the small gallery showing the king in the embrace of the god Sharruma, there was also a statue of him which is now lost, though its statue-base and cartouche on the wall still exist (plan of Yazilikaya, No. 83). It is significant that not only is the entrance directly opposite the statue-base, but, in addition, all the figures in the gallery are turned towards it (reliefs of Sharruma, the twelve gods, sword god). Bearing in mind that the king was represented three times and that his reliefs and statue occupied the most important position in both galleries and, further, that he was depicted to the exclusion of all other rulers, one is inclined to assert that these images were made during his lifetime. On the other hand, none of these portrayals can have represented Tudhaliya III, who reigned from 1400 to 1380 BC, Reliefs which reflect such a marked Hurrian influence and display such iconographical uniformity could only have been realized in the time of Puduhepa, the daughter of the high priest from the Hurrian country of Kizzuwatna. She had clay tablets from Kizzuwatna copied for the Hisuwa festivals. Consequently, Tudhaliya IV was introduced to the Hurrian religion in his mother's house. Thus he reorganized the Hittite state cult according to Hurrian rites. The stylistic differences between the three cartouches may have no chronological importance as they were probably carved by different sculptors or at different periods during the monarch's life. We, therefore, believe that the temple of the second phase, together with the reliefs of divinities in the large gallery, was built in the reign of Hattusili III (1275 - 1250 BC), and the relief of Tudhaliya, the small gallery and the third phase of the temple were achievements of Tudhaliya IV (1250 - 1220 BC). The possibility that his son Arnuwanda IV (1220 - 1190 BC) could have erected the sanctuary is out of the question, for his reign fell in so troubled a period that he could hardly have been in a position to make artistic and religious undertakings of such magnitude.

The three rectangular niches in the small gallery may have contained the burial urns of the Hittite royal family, beginning with Hattusili III and his wife Puduhepa.

Rock sanctuary at Yazilikaya. General view of the great gallery. The reliefs, which consist of 64 figures and represent 63 deities of the Hittite pantheon, were carved in the reign of Hattusiti III (1275 - 1250 BC).

Yazilikaya Relief

Rock sanctuary at Yazilikaya. Sixty-three deities representing a reduced version of the "thousand gods" of the Hittite Empire.

The gods (1 - 42) are depicted on the west and the goddesses (43 - 63) on the east side of the gallery. The chief divinities are portrayed in the main scene on the north wall (40 - 46). As they appear in profile, they are generally described as being in a procession. However, it must be understood that, with the exception of the monument of Eflatunpinar, it was not customary in the Hittite art to carve front views of figures. Therefore, we do not consider these deities to be marching in a procession nor advancing to meet one another. Rather, we believe that the artist meant his figures to be standing ceremonially in front of the beholder. The division into groups of male and female deities is not rigid. Three goddesses stand among the gods (36 - 38), and one God (44) is observed in the row of goddesses. The 42 gods represented start on the left of the entrance to the gallery with a relief consisting of 12 figures. (13 - 27) These gods are not clearly identified. 28 and 29 show two bull men standing on the hieroglyphic symbol for the earth and supporting the sky. 34) Representation of a deified king with the hieroglyphic signs of the Sun God of Heaven (see also the personification of divine kingship). 35) Moon God. 36, 37) Ninatto and Kulitta, handmaids to Ishtar. 38) Shaushga, the Hurrian Ishtar. 39) Ea, Mesopotamian God of Water and an important deity in the Hurrion religion. 40) God of Grain, holding an ear of corn. 41) Weather God of Hattusa. 42) Weather God of Heaven (Weather God of Hati). 43) Hepatu. 44) Sharruma. 47) Hutena. 48) Hutellura. 49) Nabarbi. 56) A sculptured block representing Ishtar-Shaushga, found in Yekbaz, a neighboring village, now leaning against the wall below the row of goddesses. Very probably originally from the gap between 55 and 56.

The personification of the divine kingship. This relief at Yazilikaya represents the figure of a king with hieroglyphic symbols of the Sun God of Heaven (No. 34). Kingship is indicated by the winged sun-disc and the kalmush, the long staff curved at the end. Both of these, according to the texts, were signs of sovereignty. The round skullcap and the cloak further identify this figure as. a monarch. (See also the portrayals of Tudhaliya, Sharruma). On the other hand, the hieroglyphic symbols designate him as the Sun God of Heaven. Owing to the absence of ideograms for an individual name, this figure seems to be the image of a deified ruler in a general sense. Consequently, it symbolically represented the monarch in power in each period.

Ishtar, accompanied by her attendants (Nos. 38, 37, 36). The great Babylonian goddess Ishtar was worshipped in Anatolia under the Hurrion name of Shaushga. She was the sister of Teshup and held sway as the Goddess of Law and War. She appears here with her attendants, the goddesses Ninatto and Kulitta, as the Hurrion Goddess of War. In her place among the mate deities at Yazilikaya, she wears, like them, a pointed cap with one horn and bears an axe (this is absent in the illustration given here). She was represented unarmed in the row of female deities at Yazilikaya, in her capacity as the Goddess of Low. The latter relief now rests on the ground below the figures of the female divinities. The hieroglyphic ideograms accompanying the two portrayals of the goddess are identical.

The main scene in the shrine at Yazilikaya (Nos. 40-46 and view of rock sanctuary)

41) Weather God of Hattusa, standing on two mountain peaks. 42) Weather God of Heaven, astride the deified mountains, Nanni and Hazzi. He possessed two sacred bulls called Serri and Hurri, one of which accompanies him here, while the other is shown with his consort Hepat (43). In the Hurrion language, Serri and Hurri mean, respectively, day and night. Hazzi is the Mons Cassius near Antakya, which was in Hurrian country. In view of these religious elements and the Hurrian name of his spouse (43), one may be sure the god was intended to be known by his Hurrian appellation, that is, "Teshub", although his name appears here in the usual Hittite ideograms, which mean the "Weather God of Heaven". As the highest ranking god in the hierarchy, his cap is adorned with five superimposed god-ideograms (half ellipses) and six horns at the front and back, while the Weather God of Hattusa (41) and the god Sharruma (44) are permitted to wear pointed caps with only six frontal horns in the chief god's. presence. 43) The leading female deity of the Hittite Empire, the Sun Goddess of Arinno, wife of the Weather God of Heaven, bears the Hurrian name of Hepatu, at Yazilikaya clearly written in the hieroglyphic script as it should be pronounced. Like the other female deities, she wears a high polos, ending in the form of a Greek city crown; but hers is much higher than those of the other goddesses. She is shown standing on a panther. 44) The God Sharruma. He usually appears with his mother Hepatu. The Hurrian texts record that he is the son of Teshub. Like his mother, he also stands on a panther. He carries a long-handled axe, resting on his shoulder. 45, 46) The two goddesses standing on a double-headed eagle have not been identified as yet. The three divinities Nos. 42-44 form a triad, composed of father, mother, and son. When participating in the erection of this sanctuary, the ambitious Puduhepa probably identified her husband Hattusili III with Teshub, herself with Hepatu and her son Tudhaliya IV with Sharruma.

A place of particular significance in the great gallery is occupied by the relief (No. 64) of King Tudhaliya IV (1250 - 1220 BC). It is the largest relief in the gallery. He is represented armed, wearing a skull-cap and holding in his left hand a kalmush, the sign of sovereignty. The two antithetic hieroglyphs in the form of an Ionic capital mean "Great King". The name of this king, which was originally that of a sacred mountain, is expressed by the figure in the middle and the sign below it. Since other holy mountains existed, such as Arnuwanda and Ammttna, and all were represented by the same figure as this appearing here, the sculptors have added the sign below it, which corresponds phonetically with the syllable "tu". Thus the beholder understood that this picture represented King Tudhaliya. Standing on two mountain peaks, Tudhaliya is depicted here as a deified king. According to Hittite texts, a king became a god after death. However, the impression of a seat, found in Ras Shamra, in which he is shown wearing a pointed cap adorned with horns, clearly -reveals that Tudhatiya allowed himself to be represented as a god. Therefore, this picture of Tudhaliya at Yazilikaya was quite possibly carved in his lifetime.

The scene in which the god Sharruma holds King Tudhaliya in his embrace is one of the most beautiful relief in the sanctuary at Yazilikaya (plan of Yazilikaya, small gallery, No. 81). As understood from the testament of Hattusiti I, the embrace was a gesture signifying honor and protection. Sharruma's pointed cap is adorned with god-ideograms, unlike the plainer one he is shown wearing in his portrayal in the main scene in the great gallery (main scene, No. 44). This is possibly because he is not in the presence of the Weather God of Heaven and, therefore, can allow himself to wear headgear showing marks of a higher rank. However, his cap is not adorned at the back, and so still possesses fewer horns than that of the Weather God of Heaven. Thus the hierarchy is respected. The hieroglyphs of Sharruma, indicating his name, consist of a god-ideogram and a headless body.

Güterbock interpreted them as Sharruma not only because of this figure, following Hepatu (main scene, No. 44), is, according to the texts, most probably Sharruma, but also because the two parallel strokes on either side of his shoulders are to be read as "ma". The same sign occurs as the last syllable of the hieroglyphic signs of the name "Suppiluliuma", which was deciphered with the assistance of bilingual inscriptions on royal seats found in the excavations at Hattusa.

This relief is an exquisite example of Hittite art. We may admire the mastery of the calligraphic outlines, which were the strong point of the Hittite sculptors. The pyramidal composition is most successful. The figures rest on a rhythmic horizontal line, achieved by the alignment of upturned shoes. The vertical edges of the garments and the ruler's staff merge into the rounded forms of the bodies of the king and the god. The pointed cap of the god, with its superimposed horns and god-ideograms, counterbalances the horizontal rhythm of upturned shoes with a vertical movement and with its harmonious proportions provides a graceful finale to the entire composition.

Temple of Yazilikaya. Third phase. Probably erected by Tudhaliya IV.

The relief of twelve gods in the small gallery (plan of Yazilikaya, Nos. 69 - 80) is in a very good state of preservation. It is covered with a brownish yellow patina, like the figures of Ninatta and Kulitta and that of the deified Tudhaliya. The Hittite sculptor has achieved the effect of figures marching side by side in the parade by the device of overlapping the limbs.

Up to the present, there has been no satisfactory answer concerning the religious significance of the Sword God (plan of Yazilikaya, No. 82).

Two-hybrid figures, depicted on either side of the entrance (plan of Yazilikaya, Nos. 67 - 68 not shown, however, on our plan) giving access to the smaller gallery, were supposed to protect, in an apotropaic sense, the mortuary chamber reserved for the royal cult.